Chapter 26. Nonlinear Low-Dose Extrapolations

  1. Ching-Hung Hsu and
  2. Todd Stedeford
  1. Ari S. Lewis and
  2. Barbara D. Beck

Published Online: 5 AUG 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470622728.ch26

Cancer Risk Assessment

Cancer Risk Assessment

How to Cite

Lewis, A. S. and Beck, B. D. (2010) Nonlinear Low-Dose Extrapolations, in Cancer Risk Assessment (eds C.-H. Hsu and T. Stedeford), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470622728.ch26

Editor Information

  1. Health, Safety & Environment, Albemarle Corporation, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

Author Information

  1. Gradient, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 AUG 2010
  2. Published Print: 6 JUL 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470238226

Online ISBN: 9780470622728



  • nonlinear low-dose extrapolations;
  • hormesis, defined as a dose–response relationship - characterized by a biphasic (J- or inverted U-shaped) response;
  • pharmacodynamic cancer models - Moolgavkar–Venzon–Knudson (MVK), predicting cancer cell percentage as function of time and dose


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Mechanistic Aspects of Nonlinear Carcinogenesis

  • DNA-Reactive Carcinogens and Nonlinearity

  • Nonmutagenic Carcinogens and Nonlinearity

  • Cancer Risk Assessment

  • Nonlinearity Principles into Practice

  • Summary and Conclusion

  • References