Gattermann Aldehyde Synthesis
Published Online: 15 SEP 2010
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Comprehensive Organic Name Reactions and Reagents
How to Cite
2010. Gattermann Aldehyde Synthesis. Comprehensive Organic Name Reactions and Reagents. 264:1202–1205.
- Published Online: 15 SEP 2010
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The preparation of aromatic aldehydes containing hydroxyl or alkyloxyl groups on the aromatic ring by treatment of the aromatics with hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen chloride in anhydrous solvent (e.g., ether) with or without the presence of a Lewis acid (e.g., ZnCl2, AlCl3) as a catalyst, in which aldimine hydrochloride functions as an intermediate, is generally referred to as the Gattermann aldehyde synthesis or simply as the Gatterman synthesis. It has been found that pure zinc cyanide can work properly for this reaction in presence of a trace amount of KCl or NaCl. This reaction is useful in the preparation of aromatic aldehydes with hydroxyl, alkoxyl, and even mutli-alkyl groups, such as mesitaldehyde
- Lewis acid;
- zinc cyanide;
- anhydrous hydrogen chloride