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Gattermann-Koch Formylation

Published Online: 15 SEP 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470638859.conrr266

Comprehensive Organic Name Reactions and Reagents

Comprehensive Organic Name Reactions and Reagents

How to Cite

2010. Gattermann-Koch Formylation. Comprehensive Organic Name Reactions and Reagents. 266:1209–1212.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2010

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Abstract

The preparation of aromatic aldehydes by the treatment of aromatic compounds with CO and HCl in the presence of AlCl3 and cuprous chloride, by which CO and HCl behave like the hypothetical formyl chloride and react in a fashion similar to other acyl chlorides, is generally known as the Gattermann–Koch formylation. It is known that this reaction can be carried out in two major types of conditions: at atmospheric pressure of CO with Cu2Cl2 present and at high-pressure in absence of Cu2Cl2, in which the optimal temperature for high-pressure synthesis of benzaldehyde is 35°C. This reaction is the major process for the synthesis of aromatic aldehydes in industry.

Keywords:

  • cuprous chloride;
  • benzaldehyde;
  • superacid systems;
  • para-regioselectivity