Paal-Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis
Published Online: 15 SEP 2010
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Comprehensive Organic Name Reactions and Reagents
How to Cite
2010. Paal-Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Comprehensive Organic Name Reactions and Reagents. 475:2107–2110.
- Published Online: 15 SEP 2010
The acid-catalyzed formation of pyrrole derivatives from 1,4-dicarbonyl compounds and ammonia or primary amines is generally known as the Paal–Knorr pyrrole synthesis. This reaction provides a general route for pyrrole derivatives from a variety of 1,4-dicarbonyl compounds and primary amines. The mechanistic study exibits that dl-diastereomers of 3,4-dimethyl or 3,4-diethyl-2,5-hexanediones are faster than their corresponding meso-diastereomers to form pyrroles. Several catalysts have been used for this reaction including Lewis acids. This reaction has been improved by using microwave radiation.
- titanium (IV) tetra-isopropoxide;
- cyclohexyl amine;
- microwave radiation;