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Ullmann Coupling

(Ullmann Cross-Coupling, Ullmann Reaction)

Published Online: 15 SEP 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470638859.conrr636

Comprehensive Organic Name Reactions and Reagents

Comprehensive Organic Name Reactions and Reagents

How to Cite

2010. Ullmann Coupling. Comprehensive Organic Name Reactions and Reagents. 2842–2846.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2010

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Abstract

This reaction is a copper-promoted reductive coupling between aryl halides to form biaryls and is generally referred to as the Ullmann coupling. The study finds that aryl iodides and good quality of copper powder are often used for this coupling. In addition, the Ullmann coupling can also be applied to prepare unsymmetrical biaryls from two different aryl halides. Besides the coupling of aryl halide in the presence of copper, aryl carbanion (needs substoichiometric amount of metal salt, and milder conditions) and neutral aryl can be coupled in the presence of a copper reagent. The drawbacks of this reaction have also been discussed for this coupling.

Keywords:

  • aryl carbanion;
  • aryl iodides;
  • biaryl derivatives;
  • copper powder