18. Neurotoxicity of Organophosphates and Carbamates

  1. Tetsuo Satoh5,6,7 and
  2. Ramesh C. Gupta8
  1. Kiran Dip Gill1,
  2. Govinder Flora2,3,
  3. Vidhu Pachauri4 and
  4. Swaran J. S. Flora4

Published Online: 28 MAR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9780470640500.ch18

Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology

Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology

How to Cite

Gill, K. D., Flora, G., Pachauri, V. and Flora, S. J. S. (2011) Neurotoxicity of Organophosphates and Carbamates, in Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology (eds T. Satoh and R. C. Gupta), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470640500.ch18

Editor Information

  1. 5

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Japan

  2. 6

    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan

  3. 7

    HAB Research Institute, Ichikawa, Chiba, Japan

  4. 8

    Toxicology Department, Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, Hopkinsville, KY, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Biochemistry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

  2. 2

    Spherix Inc., 6430 Rockledge Dr. Westmoreland Bldg. #503, Bethesda, MD, USA

  3. 3

    41779 Bristow Manor Dr, Ashburn, VA 20148, USA

  4. 4

    Division of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Defence Research & Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002, India

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 MAR 2011
  2. Published Print: 18 JAN 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470410301

Online ISBN: 9780470640500



  • organophosphate and carbamate neurotoxicity;
  • OPs and gulf war syndrome (GW) - veterans, unexplained illnesses, a mystery;
  • major events, in organophosphate and carbamate induced reactive oxygen species


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Acute Cholinergic Toxicity

  • Clinical Signs and Symptoms

  • Organophosphorus Ester-Induced Delayed Neurotoxicity/Neuropathy (OPIDN)

  • Delayed Onset of Encephalopathy and Coma in Acute OP Poisoning in Humans

  • Chronic Neurotoxicity

  • OPs and the Gulf War Syndrome

  • Pesticides Exposure and Parkinson's Disease

  • Effects on Receptors

  • Oxidative Stress

  • Seizure Activity and Oxidative Stress

  • Signaling Path Way

  • Effects on Gene Expression

  • Treatment of Organophosphate Poisoning

  • Additional Therapies

  • Anticonvulsants

  • Other Methods of Antidotal Treatment

  • Prevention and Treatment of Organophosphate-Induced Delayed Polyneuropathy

  • Conclusion

  • References