Chapter 29. Somatic Treatments for Bipolar Disorder: ECT, VNS and TMS

  1. Lakshmi N. Yatham3 and
  2. Mario Maj4
  1. Mark S. George1,2

Published Online: 13 AUG 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470661277.ch29

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder

How to Cite

George, M. S. (2010) Somatic Treatments for Bipolar Disorder: ECT, VNS and TMS, in Bipolar Disorder (eds L. N. Yatham and M. Maj), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470661277.ch29

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Department of Psychiatry, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

  2. 4

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Naples SUN, Naples, Italy

Author Information

  1. 1

    Brain Stimulation Laboratory, MUSC IOP, Radiology and Neurosciences Medical University of South Carolina, 67 President Street, Room 502 North, PO Box 250861, Charleston, SC 29425, USA

  2. 2

    Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Centre, Charleston, SC, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 13 AUG 2010
  2. Published Print: 1 OCT 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470721988

Online ISBN: 9780470661277



  • somatic treatments for bipolar disorder - ECT, VNS and TMS;
  • bipolar disorder (BD) and emerging clinical applications;
  • electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), induction of seizure - specific regions in brain, connections to limbic structures;
  • Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) - stimulating vagus nerve to modify central brain activity;
  • ECT, to treat manic phase of BD - with effective and rapid success;
  • adverse events associated with VNS - associated with complications of surgery and those resulting from side effects of stimulation;
  • transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) - electrical current within brain using pulsating agnetic fields;
  • long-term depression (LTD)-like;
  • repeated TMS (rTMS), measurable effects lasting - for minutes to hours;
  • brain stimulation methods for BD


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction to the technologies

  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

  • Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)

  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

  • Overall conclusions about brain stimulation methods for BD

  • Acknowledgement

  • Conflicts

  • References