Published Online: 15 MAR 2012
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials
How to Cite
Leggett, G. J. 2012. Nanolithography. Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials.
- Published Online: 15 MAR 2012
A wide range of strategies is now available for organizing molecules at nanometer length scales. Photolithography is the paradigmatic semiconductor processing methodology. We examine the limits on its resolution, and the methods that can be used to enhance its performance. Electron beam lithography offers ultimate resolution; while it requires access to expensive and complex apparatus, it has some significant applications in molecular patterning at small length scales. Soft lithography does not offer such high resolution, but such is its versatility and simplicity that it has become an invaluable tool in supramolecular science. Nanoimprinting and colloidal lithography offer alternate approaches to the physical deposition and removal of material at high resolution. The most widely used scanning probe lithography technique to date has been dip-pen nanolithography. A wide range of molecules may be patterned on different substrates, and parallelization is now enabling the fast patterning of large areas. Nanoshaving/nanografting represents an opposite approach, involving the selective removal of materials from monolayers. Constructive nanolithography uses a localized tip-induced oxidation to modify the chemistry of a monolayer, enabling the construction of complex molecular films. Finally, scanning near-field photolithography uses a near-field probe to initiate nanometer-scale photochemical transformations of molecular structure.
- electron beam lithography;
- soft lithography;
- colloidal lithography;
- dip-pen nanolithography;
- constructive lithography;
- scanning near-field lithography;
- molecular nanofabrication