Chapter 6. Classification

  1. Otto Wildi

Published Online: 14 JUL 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470664971.ch6

Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology

Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology

How to Cite

Wildi, O. (2010) Classification, in Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470664971.ch6

Author Information

  1. WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 JUL 2010
  2. Published Print: 9 APR 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470661024

Online ISBN: 9780470664971



  • classification;
  • aim of classification, internally homogeneous and distinct from other groups;
  • classification methods, simplifying group forming tasks;
  • dendrogram, output from agglomerative hierarchical clustering method;
  • ecological applications, distinguishing groups without considering hierarchy;
  • linkage clustering - agglomerative hierarchic clustering for single-, complete- and average-linkage clustering;
  • minimum-variance clustering;
  • single- and complete-linkage clustering - single data pointing in definition of group similarity;
  • average-linkage clustering - UPGMA, WPGMA, UPGMC and WPGMC;
  • structured synoptic tables


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Group structures

  • Linkage clustering

  • Minimum-variance clustering

  • Average-linkage clustering: UPGMA, WPGMA, UPGMC and WPGMC

  • Forming groups

  • Structured synoptic tables