Chapter 9. Assessing Vegetation Change in Time

  1. Otto Wildi

Published Online: 14 JUL 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470664971.ch9

Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology

Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology

How to Cite

Wildi, O. (2010) Assessing Vegetation Change in Time, in Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470664971.ch9

Author Information

  1. WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 JUL 2010
  2. Published Print: 9 APR 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470661024

Online ISBN: 9780470664971



  • assessing vegetation change in time;
  • coping with time - assessing vegetation change as multistate system, central issue in vegetation ecology;
  • specific problem of change - in multivariate data space of high dimension;
  • measuring rate of change - in time series of multistate systems;
  • ordination of data from eight plots in Swiss National Park;
  • Markov models for vegetation surveys;
  • Markov model, multispecies change with change being linear;
  • space-for-time substitution principle - in univariate case;
  • Swiss National Park succession;
  • Swiss National Park, succession in abandoned pastures - by space-for-time substitution


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Coping with time

  • Rate of change and trend

  • Markov models

  • Space-for-time substitution

  • Dynamics in pollen diagrams (example)