Chapter 11. Age Evaluation from the Skeleton

  1. Sue Black3,
  2. Jason Payne-James4 and
  3. Anil Aggrawal5
  1. S. Lucina Hackman1,
  2. Alanah Buck2 and
  3. Sue Black1

Published Online: 30 AUG 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470669785.ch11

Age Estimation in the Living

Age Estimation in the Living

How to Cite

Hackman, S. L., Buck, A. and Black, S. (2010) Age Evaluation from the Skeleton, in Age Estimation in the Living (eds S. Black, J. Payne-James and A. Aggrawal), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470669785.ch11

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Dundee, UK

  2. 4

    London, UK

  3. 5

    New Delhi, India

Author Information

  1. 1

    Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK

  2. 2

    Forensic Pathology, Path West, Locked Bag, WA 6909, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 AUG 2010
  2. Published Print: 8 OCT 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470519677

Online ISBN: 9780470669785



  • age evaluation - from the skeleton;
  • chronological age of individual, as a measure of period of time passed since birth;
  • age assessment methods, utilizing skeleton - ‘measuring’ or ‘recognizing’ changes in skeletal maturation;
  • radiological imaging, strength of relationship between skeletal maturation and chronological age;
  • skeletal age assessment in juveniles and adolescents - for clinicians for number of reasons;
  • long bone length and chronological age link in juveniles - imaging techniques, Maresh and Deming's work;
  • age estimation link into legal systems - using concrete dates, moving individuals from one group to another;
  • Risser's sign, assessing skeletal maturity - optimum time for clinical intervention in vertebral column scoliosis;
  • vertebral column, identified as a place - where age-associated changes occur


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Background

  • Fetal Age

  • Birth

  • Juvenile/Child

  • Age Estimation from the Skeleton in Living Adults

  • Medial Clavicle

  • Sternal Ribs and Costal Cartilages

  • Pelvis

  • Skull Sutural Closure

  • Laryngeal Cartilages

  • Other General Ageing Features

  • Summary

  • References