Chapter 6. Principles of Physical Age Estimation

  1. Sue Black3,
  2. Jason Payne-James4 and
  3. Anil Aggrawal5
  1. Sue Black1 and
  2. George Maat2

Published Online: 30 AUG 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470669785.ch6

Age Estimation in the Living

Age Estimation in the Living

How to Cite

Black, S. and Maat, G. (2010) Principles of Physical Age Estimation, in Age Estimation in the Living (eds S. Black, J. Payne-James and A. Aggrawal), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470669785.ch6

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Dundee, UK

  2. 4

    London, UK

  3. 5

    New Delhi, India

Author Information

  1. 1

    Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK

  2. 2

    Barge's Anthropology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 AUG 2010
  2. Published Print: 8 OCT 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470519677

Online ISBN: 9780470669785



  • physical age estimation principles;
  • process of assigning biological age, approximating - to chronological age of individual;
  • intra-uterine growth and development;
  • prenatal growth, influenced by child's genetic composition;
  • enhanced rate of fetal growth - insatiable requirement for a nutrient source;
  • infancy, period in which the child - shows rapid growth velocity of any of the postnatal stages;
  • age of emergence of last deciduous molar - signaling end of infancy and time when infant becomes maternally independent;
  • period of human life span, process of inadequate - and ever decreasing normal growth processes;
  • University of Iowa Child Welfare Research Station - one of the first longitudinal studies implemented;
  • age evaluation in the living - to become a robust judicial tool


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Intra-uterine Growth and Development

  • Birth and Infancy

  • Childhood

  • Juvenile

  • Adolescence

  • Adult

  • Senescence

  • Summary

  • Growth Studies

  • References