Chapter 8. Practical Imaging Techniques for Age Evaluation

  1. Sue Black5,
  2. Jason Payne-James6 and
  3. Anil Aggrawal7
  1. Andreas Schmeling1,
  2. Sven Schmidt1,
  3. Ronald Schulz1,
  4. Andreas Olze2,
  5. Walter Reisinger3 and
  6. Volker Vieth4

Published Online: 30 AUG 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470669785.ch8

Age Estimation in the Living

Age Estimation in the Living

How to Cite

Schmeling, A., Schmidt, S., Schulz, R., Olze, A., Reisinger, W. and Vieth, V. (2010) Practical Imaging Techniques for Age Evaluation, in Age Estimation in the Living (eds S. Black, J. Payne-James and A. Aggrawal), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470669785.ch8

Editor Information

  1. 5

    Dundee, UK

  2. 6

    London, UK

  3. 7

    New Delhi, India

Author Information

  1. 1

    Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Münster, Röntgenstraße 23, 48149 Münster, Germany

  2. 2

    Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Turmstraße 21, 10559 Berlin, Germany

  3. 3

    Institut für Radiologie (CCM), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Schumannstraße 20/21, 10117 Berlin, Germany

  4. 4

    Institut für Klinische Radiologie, Universitätsklinikum Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Straße 33, 48149 Münster, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 AUG 2010
  2. Published Print: 8 OCT 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470519677

Online ISBN: 9780470669785



  • practical imaging techniques for age evaluation;
  • Guidelines for use of ionizing radiation - varying from country to country;
  • imaging techniques of forensic age diagnostics, in juveniles and adolescents - instructions on interpreting radiological findings;
  • X-ray examinations, for forensic age estimations;
  • highest contribution to civilian radiation exposure - from medical procedures;
  • possible health risk, biological effect of X-rays - being needed;
  • cancer mortality risks, for adults and children - assumption, a linear dose–effect relationship;
  • skeletal maturation - a vital diagnostic pillar;
  • dental age estimation in adolescents and young adults - eruption and mineralization of third molars;
  • forensic age estimations in living individuals - non-ionizing procedures for medial clavicular epiphyseal cartilage, being desirable


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Radiation Exposure in X-ray Examinations for the Purpose of Age Estimation

  • Radiological Examination of the Hand

  • Radiological Examination of the Teeth

  • Radiological Examination of the Clavicles

  • Summary and Conclusions

  • References