Standard Article

Displacement and ipso-Substitution in Nitration

Amino, Nitroso, Nitro and Related Groups (1996)

  1. J. P. B. Sandall

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470682531.pat0091

Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups

Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups

How to Cite

Sandall, J. P. B. 2009. Displacement and ipso-Substitution in Nitration. Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups. .

Author Information

  1. University of Exeter, Department of Chemistry, Exeter, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009


  • 1
  • 2
    Formation of ipso-Adducts
  • 3
    Further Reactions of ipso-Intermediates and Adducts
  • 4
    Rearrangement of ipso-Substituted Groups
  • 5
    Displacement of ipso-Substituted Groups
  • 6


  • displacement and ipso-substitution in nitration;
  • ipso-adduct formation;
  • ipso-substituted group rearrangement;
  • displacement of ipso-substituted groups;
  • nucleophilic substitution and ipso-substitution as norm;
  • ipso-intermediates and adducts;
  • ipso-species behaviour and Hartshorn’s group;
  • displacement of groups under ipso-attack in indoles