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Antiaromaticity and Aromaticity in Carbocyclic Four-Membered Rings

Cyclobutanes (2005)

  1. M. Eckert-Maksić,
  2. Z. B. Maksić

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470682531.pat0316

Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups

Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups

How to Cite

Eckert-Maksić, M. and Maksić, Z. B. 2009. Antiaromaticity and Aromaticity in Carbocyclic Four-Membered Rings. Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups. .

Author Information

  1. Rudjer Bošković Institute, Laboratory for Physical-Organic Chemistry, Division of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Quantum Organic Chemistry Group, Zagreb, Croatia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

Abstract

  • 1
    Introduction and Scope
  • 2
    Antiaromaticity of Four-Membered Rings
  • 3
    Cyclobutadiene in Excited State
  • 4
    Cyclobutadiene Dications and Dianions
  • 5
    Squaric Acid, its Anions and Related Compounds
  • 6
    Sigma-Antiaromaticity of Molecules Involving Saturated Four-Membered Ring(s)
  • 7
    Conclusion
  • 8
    Acknowledgments

Keywords:

  • antiaromaticity of four-membered rings;
  • cyclobutadiene - synthetic challenge for organic chemists;
  • fused cyclobutadienes;
  • tris-annelation and vicinal C–H/F bonds;
  • antiaromaticity and aromaticity;
  • cyclobutadiene moiety and 1,3-dimethylenecyclobutadiene;
  • highest occupied (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied (LUMO) molecular orbitals;
  • cyclobutadiene in excited state