Standard Article



Organisms and Their Biology

  1. Ben Adler BSC BA PHD MASM Director1,
  2. Solly Faine Emeritus Professor2

Published Online: 15 MAR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470688618.taw0072

Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections

Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections

How to Cite

Adler, B. and Faine, S. 2010. Leptospira. Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Monash University, ARC Centre for Microbial Genomics, Department of Microbiology, Victoria, Australia

  2. 2

    Monash University, MediSci Consulting, Department of Microbiology, Armadale, Melbourne, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 MAR 2010


  • 1
    The Genus Leptospira and its Species, and the Associated Genera Leptonema and Turneria
  • 2
    Introduction and Brief Historical Perspective
  • 3
  • 4
    Morphology and Visualization
  • 5
    Cultural Characteristics and Growth Requirements
  • 6
  • 7
    Molecular Biology of Leptospira
  • 8
    The Leptospiral Surface
  • 9
  • 10
    Laboratory Isolation and Identification
  • 11
    Susceptibility to Antimicrobial Agents
  • 12
    Pathogenicity and Virulence Factors


  • genus Leptospira and its species-associated genera Leptonema and Turneria;
  • species of leptospires-differentiated by DNA homology under high stringency conditions;
  • Leptospiral flagella-originating in disc rotor and hooked to proximal end structure in cell wall;
  • stages in division in leptospires-reconstructed from electron micrographs and direct observation;
  • optimum conditions-temperature, pH, osmolarity and other conditions;
  • nitrogen sources, purines, and pyrimidines;
  • molecular biology of Leptospira;
  • environmental specimens–water, mud, and soil