Chapter 4. Classifications and Clinical Investigations

  1. Michael R. Trimble MD, FRCP, FRCPsych Professor of Behavioural Neurology1 and
  2. Mark S. George MD Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry Director MUSC Director2,3,4,5,6

Published Online: 21 JUL 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470689394.ch4

Biological Psychiatry, Third Edition

Biological Psychiatry, Third Edition

How to Cite

Trimble, M. R. and George, M. S. (2010) Classifications and Clinical Investigations, in Biological Psychiatry, Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470689394.ch4

Author Information

  1. 1

    Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London UK

  2. 2

    Radiology and Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, USA

  3. 3

    Brain Stimulation Laboratory, Medical University of South Carolina, USA

  4. 4

    Center for Advanced Imaging Research (CAIR), Medical University of South Carolina, USA

  5. 5

    SC Brain Imaging Center of Excellence, Medical University of South Carolina, USA

  6. 6

    Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 21 JUL 2010
  2. Published Print: 27 AUG 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470688946

Online ISBN: 9780470689394



  • classifications and clinical investigations;
  • General Paresis of the Insane (GPI) - classified as syndrome of syphilis;
  • symptoms, complaints of patient - spontaneously reported or elicited by clinical history;
  • International Classification of Diseases (ICD);
  • organic mental disorders;
  • ICD 10, category labelled ‘organic’ - symptomatic mental disorders;
  • Cartesian splitting of psychiatric from somatic forces - artificial separation of what is the reality;
  • Radioimmunoassay (RIA) - being important;
  • brain-imaging techniques computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT) scans;
  • Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) - correlation with clinical disease burden, potential surrogate marker for new drug development


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Signs, symptoms, syndromes and disease

  • Classification in psychiatry

  • Clinical investigation