Chapter 7. Violent Police-Suspect Encounters: The Impact of Environmental Stressors on the Use of Lethal Force
- Adrian Needs and
- Graham Towl
Published Online: 1 APR 2008
Copyright © 2004 British Psychologyical Society and Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Applying Psychology to Forensic Practice
How to Cite
Vrij, A. and Barton, J. (2004) Violent Police-Suspect Encounters: The Impact of Environmental Stressors on the Use of Lethal Force, in Applying Psychology to Forensic Practice (eds A. Needs and G. Towl), Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470693971.ch7
- Published Online: 1 APR 2008
- Published Print: 1 JAN 2004
Print ISBN: 9781405105415
Online ISBN: 9780470693971
- violent police;
- authorized firearms officers;
- shooting behaviour research;
- environmental stressors
This chapter contains section titled:
Decision Making to Use Lethal Force in Confrontations with Suspects: A Model
Empirical Support for the Environmental Stressor Performance Model
Do Environmental Stressors Increase Arousal?
Do High Temperature, Street Noise, and High Speed Driving Result in Excessive Use of Force?
Are Field-Independent Police Officers Less Affected by Environmental Stressors than Field-Dependent Officers?