Endocrine Disruption in Toxic Responses
Published Online: 15 DEC 2009
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
General, Applied and Systems Toxicology
How to Cite
Kitamura, S., Sugihara, K., Nakamura, K., Kotake, Y., Kashiwagi, A. and Fujimoto, N. 2009. Endocrine Disruption in Toxic Responses. General, Applied and Systems Toxicology.
- Published Online: 15 DEC 2009
Many endocrine-disrupting agents, including industrial materials, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and phytochemicals, have been identified with their use by in vitro assay systems and in vivo studies in laboratory animals. These chemicals are widely distributed in the environment, and are able to mimic or antagonize the biological functions of natural hormones. Indeed, abnormalities thought to be due to such agents have been found in animals throughout the world. There is also thought to be a risk to humans, for example, DES syndrome. Xenoestrogens can accumulate in our environment, and may play a role in the increasing incidences of breast cancer, testicular cancer and other problems of the reproductive system in humans. Risks due to endocrine disruptors in the environment are discussed in this chapter.
Keywords: endocrine disrupting activity; oestrogen; antiandrogen; reproductive system; central nervous system; immune system