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Environmental and Endogenous Factors Determining the Expression of Toxicity

Factors Influencing Toxicology

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470744307.gat028

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

How to Cite

2009. Environmental and Endogenous Factors Determining the Expression of Toxicity. General, Applied and Systems Toxicology. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

Abstract

One of the basic principles of toxicology is the concept of the molecular site of action, or molecular lesion. This interaction of a toxicant with a target, typically a cellular macromolecule or macromolecules, leads to cellular dysfunction with consequences that are often expressed at the physiological or organismal level. The focus of this chapter, however, is not on the nature of the molecular lesion itself, but rather on the environmental and endogenous factors that influence its expression. Relevant factors that will be discussed include exposure to environmental stressors (including other chemical exposures), as well as intrinsic characteristics of the organism (such as species, sex, age, physiologic parameters or genetic variation), which may either influence delivery and binding of the toxicant to the target molecule or alter the ultimate physiological consequences of that binding.

Keywords:

  • toxicokinetics;
  • induction;
  • inhibition;
  • blood–brain barrier;
  • cytochrome P450;
  • glutathione;
  • synergism;
  • stress proteins;
  • toxicogenomics;
  • species;
  • sex;
  • age;
  • genetic polymorphisms, epigenomics