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Development of Tolerance to the Toxicity of Xenobiotics

Factors Influencing Toxicology

  1. Frode Fonnum DPhil

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470744307.gat034

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

How to Cite

Fonnum, F. 2009. Development of Tolerance to the Toxicity of Xenobiotics. General, Applied and Systems Toxicology. .

Author Information

  1. University of Oslo, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basal Medicine, Oslo, Norway

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

Abstract

The development of tolerance to xenobiotics usually involves the inactivation of receptors or the induction of enzymes that bind or inactivate the xenobiotics. This review showns, as the main example, anticholinesterase, the effect of which is modified in several different ways. Tolerance depends on the internalization or inactivation of the muscarinic receptor or the nicotinic receptor. Also mentioned is the interaction of the adenosine receptor with the cholinergic system. Further, the importance of carboxylesterases, butyrylcholinesterase and phosphoric hydrolases in tolerance is discussed. An interesting topic included is the survival of acetylcholinesterase knock-out animals. Finally the mechanism of tolerance to morphine in the locus coerulus is discussed as an example.

Keywords:

  • metallothionein;
  • acetylcholinesterase;
  • carboxylesterase;
  • muscarinic receptors;
  • nicotine receptors;
  • morphine