Development of Tolerance to the Toxicity of Xenobiotics
Factors Influencing Toxicology
Published Online: 15 DEC 2009
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
General, Applied and Systems Toxicology
How to Cite
Fonnum, F. 2009. Development of Tolerance to the Toxicity of Xenobiotics. General, Applied and Systems Toxicology. .
- Published Online: 15 DEC 2009
The development of tolerance to xenobiotics usually involves the inactivation of receptors or the induction of enzymes that bind or inactivate the xenobiotics. This review showns, as the main example, anticholinesterase, the effect of which is modified in several different ways. Tolerance depends on the internalization or inactivation of the muscarinic receptor or the nicotinic receptor. Also mentioned is the interaction of the adenosine receptor with the cholinergic system. Further, the importance of carboxylesterases, butyrylcholinesterase and phosphoric hydrolases in tolerance is discussed. An interesting topic included is the survival of acetylcholinesterase knock-out animals. Finally the mechanism of tolerance to morphine in the locus coerulus is discussed as an example.
- muscarinic receptors;
- nicotine receptors;