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Pathological Techniques in Toxicology


  1. Peter Greaves MB, ChB, FRCPath

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470744307.gat039

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

How to Cite

Greaves, P. 2009. Pathological Techniques in Toxicology. General, Applied and Systems Toxicology. .

Author Information

  1. Leicester Royal Infirmary, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Leicester, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009


Histopathological evaluation remains an important part of the assessment of the adverse effects of xenobiotics on the whole organism. In addition to conventional special staining techniques and electron microscopy, new techniques involving immunocytochemistry, molecular biology and novel visualization procedures have provided additional objective techniques that have enabled better functional and morphological characterization of induced alterations in organs of the body. This chapter covers both conventional and new methods involved in the microscopical assessment of tissue changes induced by xenobiotics.


  • necropsy;
  • organs;
  • tissues;
  • fixation;
  • histotechnology;
  • histological stains;
  • histochemistry;
  • immunohistochemistry;
  • light microscopic techniques;
  • electron microscopy;
  • morphometry;
  • molecular techniques