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Antidotal Studies


  1. D. Nicholas Bateman BSc, MD, FRCP, FRCP(E), FBPharmacols, FBTS1,
  2. Timothy C. Marrs OBE, MD, DSc, FRCP, FRCPath, FBTS, FATS2,3,4

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470744307.gat045

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

How to Cite

Bateman, D. N. and Marrs, T. C. 2009. Antidotal Studies. General, Applied and Systems Toxicology. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Edinburgh, and Director, Professor in Clinical Toxicology, National Poisons Information Service (Edinburgh unit), Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

  2. 2

    Edentox Associates, Edenbridge, Kent, UK

  3. 3

    City Hospital, National Poisons Information Service (Birmingham Centre) and West Midlands Poisons Unit, Birmingham, UK

  4. 4

    University of Central Lancashire, Lancashire School of Health and Postgraduate Medicine, Preston, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009


Antidotes for poisons may act in a variety of ways and, in some cases, two (or more) antidotes using different antidotal approaches, are used together. Antidote development depends on an extensive knowledge of the action of the poison, which the antidote is expected to counteract. Poisons and their antidotes may be studied in vitro, in experimental animals or in humans. The design of experimental studies in animals and experimental and observational ones in humans presents major challenges. In the case of animal studies, the aim is to simulate realistic treatment scenarios.


  • antidotes;
  • clinical trials;
  • poisoning