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Cutaneous Toxicology

Toxicity by Routes

  1. Jim E. Riviere DVM, PhD, DSc, Fellow, ATS1,
  2. Nancy A. Monteiro-Riviere PhD, Fellow, ATS2

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470744307.gat055

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

How to Cite

Riviere, J. E. and Monteiro-Riviere, N. A. 2009. Cutaneous Toxicology. General, Applied and Systems Toxicology. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    North Carolina State University, Center for Chemical Toxicology Research and Pharmacokinetics, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

  2. 2

    North Carolina State University, Center for Chemical Toxicology Research and Pharmacokinetics, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

Abstract

Skin is one of the largest organs in the body and is both a route for systemic absorption as well as a direct target after topical exposure in dermatologic formulations, cosmetics or occupational incidents. Compounds cross the stratum corneum epidermal barrier by passive diffusion through the intercellular lipids. Toxicity to this organ is manifested by alteration to one of its biological functions including loss of barrier, damage to the underlying dermis, hair loss, damage to adnexial structures, carcinogenic transformation to cellular constituents or activation of its resident immune system. Factors that result in absorption through or toxicity to skin will be reviewed.

Keywords:

  • skin;
  • dermal toxicology;
  • percutaneous absorption;
  • diffusion;
  • vesication;
  • animal models;
  • irritation