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Occupational Toxicology

Specialisation

  1. Chuanfang Jin MD, MPH,
  2. Charles M. Werntz III DO, MPH,
  3. Alan M. Ducatman MD, MS

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470744307.gat107

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

How to Cite

Jin, C., Werntz, C. M. and Ducatman, A. M. 2009. Occupational Toxicology. General, Applied and Systems Toxicology. .

Author Information

  1. West Virginia University, Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

Abstract

Occupational diseases are both over- and underdiagnosed. Both problems are important, but underdiagnosis in populations dwarfs the intermittent problem of occasional overdiagnosis in individuals. A Venn-diagram approach to occupational disease includes: (i) a correct clinical diagnosis (specific ICD code or else a clear description of the clinical presentation), (ii) an understanding of the patient's exposure history (toxic exposures, including some sense of ‘dose’) and (iii) an understanding of the actual human toxicology/epidemiology of the exposure(s) in question (evidence-based exposure-outcome assessment). Incomplete understanding of the clinical presentation or failure to understand the exposure explains the large background of missed diagnoses. Fanciful attributions of exposure-outcome relationships explain intermittent overdiagnoses. Following an overview of the occupational history, and laboratory testing, this chapter surveys the literature covering a broad range of toxic exposure-outcome information.

Keywords:

  • occupational diseases/chemically induced/classification/epidemiology;
  • occupational exposure;
  • occupational exposure/adverse effects;
  • occupational history;
  • occupational medicine;
  • toxicity;
  • neurotoxicity;
  • environmental disease;
  • environmental factors;
  • workers