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Toxicogenomics in Risk Assessment

Issues Relevant to Toxicology

  1. Susan L. Makris MS,
  2. Susan Y. Euling PhD

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470744307.gat121

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

How to Cite

Makris, S. L. and Euling, S. Y. 2009. Toxicogenomics in Risk Assessment. General, Applied and Systems Toxicology. .

Author Information

  1. Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009


Toxicogenomics is defined as the application of genomic technologies to study the adverse effects of environmental and pharmaceutical chemicals on human health and the environment. It integrates toxicant-specific alterations in gene, protein, and metabolite expression patterns with phenotypic responses of cells, tissues and organisms. These data, depending on the type of data and study design, have the potential for use in various stages of risk assessment; that is, hazard characterization, dose-response assessment and exposure identification. As genomic technologies produce global molecular response data, they provide a new and unique source of information that can inform mode of action, intraspecies variability and susceptibility, interspecies variability and/or cross-species extrapolation, and/or cumulative risk. Considerations and future challenges regarding the use of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment such as variability in response, experimental design, analysis of data, and training, are described, and regulatory agency guidance and efforts in this field are summarized.


  • toxicogenomics;
  • risk assessment;
  • microarray;
  • genomic;
  • mode of action;
  • dose response;
  • hazard characterization;
  • exposure assessment;
  • biomarker;
  • bioinformatics;
  • transcriptomics;
  • proteomics;
  • metabolomics;
  • cross-species extrapolation;
  • cumulative risk