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Mycotoxins with a Special Focus on Aflatoxins, Ochratoxins and Fumonisins


  1. Pieter S. Steyn PhD1,
  2. Wentzel C.A. Gelderblom PhD2,3,
  3. Gordon S. Shephard PhD2,
  4. Fanie R. van Heerden PhD4

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470744307.gat150

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

How to Cite

Steyn, P. S., Gelderblom, W. C., Shephard, G. S. and van Heerden, F. R. 2009. Mycotoxins with a Special Focus on Aflatoxins, Ochratoxins and Fumonisins. General, Applied and Systems Toxicology. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Stellenbosch University, Division for Research Development, Stellenbosch, South Africa

  2. 2

    Medical Research Council, Programme on Mycotoxins and Experimental Carcinogenesis (PROMEC), Tygerberg, South Africa

  3. 3

    Stellenbosch University, Department of Biochemistry, Matieland, South Africa

  4. 4

    University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Chemistry, Scottsville, South Africa

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009


Mycotoxins are important environmental and carcinogenic agents. They are ubiquitous in a broad range of commodities and cause toxic responses when ingested by humans and animals. A review of mycotoxins is presented with special reference to the producing species, analytical methodology, occurrence, biological activity, decontamination, regulations and the risk assessment of aflatoxins, ochratoxins and fumonisins. Some of the most recent studies regarding the mechanisms involved in fumonisin B1-induced biological effects in different cell culture systems are tabulated. The review is directed at updating the previous review of Steyn and Stander (1999) with a focus on recent findings.


  • aflatoxin;
  • ochratoxin;
  • fumonisin;
  • carcinogens;
  • nephrotoxins;
  • hepatotoxins;
  • neural toxins;
  • natural occurrence;
  • biological activity;
  • degradation of mycotoxins;
  • mycotoxin risk analysis;
  • mycotoxin regulations;
  • primary liver cancer;
  • oesophageal cancer;
  • equine leukoencaphalomalacia;
  • Danish porcine nephropathy