Food Allergy and Intolerance
Toxicology of Specific Groups of Substances
Published Online: 15 DEC 2009
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
General, Applied and Systems Toxicology
How to Cite
Løvik, M. 2009. Food Allergy and Intolerance. General, Applied and Systems Toxicology. .
- Published Online: 15 DEC 2009
Food allergy is caused by immunologically mediated over-reactivity against food components, and may be IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. The most serious form and the one of concern for regulatory authorities, is IgE-mediated food allergy. Food intolerances often have unknown mechanisms. However, lactose intolerance and fructose intolerance are caused by known enzyme deficiencies, and gluten intolerance is caused by an autoimmune reaction elicited by gluten protein. IgE-mediated food allergy often occurs together with skin allergy and respiratory allergy. The diagnosis of food allergy rests on three pillars: the case history, the demonstration of a specific IgE against the food in serum or by skin-prick testing, and food challenge. Testing alone will grossly overestimate the presence of a clinically manifest food allergy. The diagnosis of food allergy is often difficult and resource-demanding. Food allergy is most common in small children, but may be underestimated in young adults. There are geographical variations with regard to prevalence and which foods represent the most common allergens. Epidemiological data on food allergy are often uncertain. No validated animal models of food allergy exist. Prediction of allergenicity of a new protein depends on the overall weight of evidence derived from several sources, including comparison to known allergens in allergen databases.
- food allergy;
- food allergen;
- animal model;
- gluten intolerance;
- lactose intolerance;
- fructose intolerance