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Systems Toxicology


  1. Yinfa Ma1,
  2. Weisheng Lin2

Published Online: 15 SEP 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9780470744307.gat239

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

General, Applied and Systems Toxicology

How to Cite

Ma, Y. and Lin, W. 2011. Nanotoxicology. General, Applied and Systems Toxicology. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Rolla, MO, USA

  2. 2

    Frontage Laboratory, Great Valley Corporate Center, Malvern, PA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2011


Nanotechnology has become one of the leading technologies in the past two decades due to its unique applications in many areas. However, the health effects of nanomaterials have caused people great concerns, mainly due to the small particle sizes and unique properties of the nanomaterials. The large specific surface areas of the nanomaterials make them very reactive in the cellular environment, and may impose very different biological effects than those of the bulk materials. Consequently, the levels of toxicity of nanomaterials are potentially higher than those of bulk materials. A large amount of research, both in vitro and in vivo, has been conducted and the data have shown that several types of nanomaterials are highly toxic. This chapter mainly summarizes the work being done in the area of nanotoxicology and the proper ways to carry out nanotoxicology studies to assure that valid data can be obtained, including characterization of nanomaterials, proposed mechanisms of nanomaterials, types of biomarkers and analytical techniques that were used to assess the levels of nanotoxicity, and experimental design for in vitro and in vivo nanotoxicology studies. In conclusion, this chapter serves as a short version of a handbook to assist nanotoxicology researchers in experimental designs, assessment, and data evaluations.


  • Nanomaterials;
  • nanomaterial characterization;
  • nanotoxicology;
  • nanotoxicity biomarkers;
  • nanotoxicity mechanisms;
  • analytical methods for nanotoxicity study;
  • in vitro nanotoxicity study;
  • in vivo nanotoxicity study