Health Effects of Nanoparticles
Published Online: 15 SEP 2011
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
General, Applied and Systems Toxicology
How to Cite
Baeza-Squiban, A., Boland, S., Hussain, S. and Marano, F. 2011. Health Effects of Nanoparticles. General, Applied and Systems Toxicology.
- Published Online: 15 SEP 2011
Increasing utilizations of nanomaterials in the industrial as well as consumer products augment the possibilities of environmental and occupational human exposures. Because of this fact, nanoparticles (NPs) have become potential candidates for the risk assessment. Among the possible exposure routes, inhalation represents the most important route of non-intentional exposure to NPs. There are increasing evidences that NPs exhibit ability to cross biological barriers getting access to the bloodstream and secondary target organs where they could accumulate and induce pathological consequences. The surface area and reactivity of particles increase many fold relative to particle mass as particle size is reduced. Together with chemical composition, they constitute important determinants of NPs toxicity. They contribute in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to the toxicological outcomes induced by NPs. In this study, we present a systemic overview of the current knowledge on the exposure, secondary organ translocation and potential health effects of the NPs. Moreover, potential mechanisms of NP-induced cellular effects and role of physico-chemical characteristics are elaborated. The potentially deleterious effects of NPs require further studies in order to build on our mechanistic understanding of the toxicological events in which they can be implicated.
- oxidative stress;
- surface area;
- surface reactivity;