Chapter 13. Actuated Pins for Braille Displays

  1. Federico Carpi2 and
  2. Elisabeth Smela3
  1. Geoffrey M. Spinks and
  2. Gordon G. Wallace

Published Online: 20 APR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470744697.ch13

Biomedical Applications of Electroactive Polymer Actuators

Biomedical Applications of Electroactive Polymer Actuators

How to Cite

Spinks, G. M. and Wallace, G. G. (2009) Actuated Pins for Braille Displays, in Biomedical Applications of Electroactive Polymer Actuators (eds F. Carpi and E. Smela), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470744697.ch13

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Interdepartmental Research Centre “E. Piaggio”, School of Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

  2. 3

    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, USA

Author Information

  1. ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 APR 2009
  2. Published Print: 17 APR 2009

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470773055

Online ISBN: 9780470744697



  • actuated pins for Braille displays;
  • computer based displays;
  • vision-impaired population;
  • internet revolution;
  • drop-down menus;
  • commercial electronic Braille displays;
  • multiple dot Braille prototypes;
  • electromagnetic solenoids;
  • polymer actuators


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Requirements for the Electronic Braille Screen

  • Mechanical Analysis of Actuators Operating Against Springs

  • Polypyrrole Actuators for Electronic Braille Pins

  • Other Polymer Actuation Systems for Electronic Braille Pins

  • Summary

  • Acknowledgements

  • References