Chapter 2. Dyes and Stains

  1. Mark Wainwright

Published Online: 29 APR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470744956.ch2

Photosensitisers in Biomedicine

Photosensitisers in Biomedicine

How to Cite

Wainwright, M. (2009) Dyes and Stains, in Photosensitisers in Biomedicine, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470744956.ch2

Author Information

  1. School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Liverpool John Moores University, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 29 APR 2009
  2. Published Print: 31 MAR 2009

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470510605

Online ISBN: 9780470744956



  • photosensitisers - dyeing of textiles and staining of biological samples for microscopy;
  • dyes and stains - dyes applied to textile substrates as a solution;
  • dyes and drug development;
  • human factor - dyes rejected for human use due to toxicity;
  • biological stains and biomedical photosensitisers;
  • photosensitiser–target interactions - as between dye and its substrate;
  • textile dyeing and biological staining;
  • dye-derived photosensitisers and purpose-designed antibacterial agents;
  • staining in microscopy, scientific areas of histology, histochemistry - half-way house between textile dyeing and medical use of photosensitisers;
  • photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) or photodiagnosis (PD)


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Dye use

  • Textile dyeing and biological staining

  • Biological stains and biomedical photosensitisers

  • The human factor

  • Dyes and drug development

  • Dyes and stains and photosensitiser design

  • References