Chapter 5. Triarylmethanes and Xanthenes

  1. Mark Wainwright

Published Online: 29 APR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470744956.ch5

Photosensitisers in Biomedicine

Photosensitisers in Biomedicine

How to Cite

Wainwright, M. (2009) Triarylmethanes and Xanthenes, in Photosensitisers in Biomedicine, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470744956.ch5

Author Information

  1. School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Liverpool John Moores University, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 29 APR 2009
  2. Published Print: 31 MAR 2009

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470510605

Online ISBN: 9780470744956



  • triarylmethanes and xanthenes;
  • crystal violet - basis of Gram stain in microbiology;
  • Victoria blue series (VBs) - dyes similar in structure to crystal violet, one of the phenyls;
  • Victoria blue BO (VBBO);
  • crystal violet and common Victoria blues;
  • homolka base/quinoneimine formation in Victoria blue and Nile blue derivatives;
  • triarylmethane synthesis from Michler's ketone;
  • longer-wavelength absorbers via benzannelation;
  • rhodamines and rhodamine chalcogenologues;
  • pyrylium analogues from photosensitiser development


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Triarylmethanes

  • Victoria blue series

  • Structure and photoproperties in triarylmethanes – extending the long-wavelength absorption

  • Synthesis

  • Xanthene derivatives

  • Biological uses

  • Rhodamines

  • Rosamines

  • Pyrylium compounds

  • Pyronines

  • References