Chapter 21. Toxicity Testing and Evaluation of Nanoparticles: Challenges in Risk Assessment

  1. Saura C. Sahu2 and
  2. Daniel A. Casciano3
  1. David Y. Lai and
  2. Philip G. Sayre

Published Online: 18 AUG 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470747803.ch21



How to Cite

Lai, D. Y. and Sayre, P. G. (2009) Toxicity Testing and Evaluation of Nanoparticles: Challenges in Risk Assessment, in Nanotoxicity (eds S. C. Sahu and D. A. Casciano), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470747803.ch21

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Division of Toxicology, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 8301 Muirkirk Road, Laurel, MD 20708, USA

  2. 3

    Department for Applied Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR, USA

Author Information

  1. US Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20460, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 AUG 2009
  2. Published Print: 21 AUG 2009

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470741375

Online ISBN: 9780470747803



  • toxicity testing and nanoparticle evaluation;
  • development of testing strategies;
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC);
  • mechanisms of action and human health concern;
  • testing strategies for human health effects;
  • International Life Sciences Institute Research Foundation/Risk Science Institute (ILSI);
  • environmental, human health and safety (EHS) framework;
  • intratracheal instillation;
  • risk assessment challenges and complexity of nanoparticle toxicity;
  • American Standards of Testing Materials (ASTM)


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Possible Mechanisms of Action and Basis of Human Health Concern

  • Testing Strategies for Human Health Effects

  • Issues of Short-term In Vitro Assays

  • Issues of In Vivo Assays

  • Challenges in Risk Assessment

  • Conclusions and Perspectives

  • References