Chapter 6. Scale, Sampling and Geostatistics

  1. Alastair Ruffell and
  2. Jennifer McKinley

Published Online: 14 JUL 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470758854.ch6



How to Cite

Ruffell, A. and McKinley, J. (2008) Scale, Sampling and Geostatistics, in Geoforensics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470758854.ch6

Author Information

  1. Queen's University, Belfast, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 JUL 2008
  2. Published Print: 18 JUL 2008

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470057346

Online ISBN: 9780470758854



  • scale, sampling and geostatistics;
  • spatial scale and resolution criminal activity analysis;
  • forensic studies - statistics use and misuse;
  • murder investigation Dune database application;
  • spatial awareness and spatial statistics use


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Scale and spatial resolution

  • Sampling for geological materials at urban and non-urban crime scenes

  • Timing of the crime

  • Sample size

  • Lateral variation

  • Use and misuse of statistics in forensic studies

  • Statistical sampling

  • Number of samples required for robust statistical analysis

  • Comparing ‘like with like’

  • Addressing the issue of comparing related material

  • Spatial and temporal variability in nature

  • Spatial awareness and use of spatial statistics: application of geostatistics

  • Geostatistical techniques

  • GIS and geostatistics