Chapter 8. Trace Evidence

  1. Alastair Ruffell and
  2. Jennifer McKinley

Published Online: 14 JUL 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470758854.ch8



How to Cite

Ruffell, A. and McKinley, J. (2008) Trace Evidence, in Geoforensics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470758854.ch8

Author Information

  1. Queen's University, Belfast, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 JUL 2008
  2. Published Print: 18 JUL 2008

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470057346

Online ISBN: 9780470758854



  • geological trace evidence;
  • QemScan - automated SEM system;
  • forensic geology principles obscuring evidence;
  • scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface and texture analysis;
  • X-ray diffraction and trace evidence


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • What is geological trace evidence?

  • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  • Laser Raman spectroscopy

  • Inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy

  • Isotope analysis

  • X-ray diffraction and trace evidence

  • Manufactured or processed materials that geoscience techniques can analyse

  • Some conjecture on the future of trace evidence