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ADME of Herbal Dietary Supplements

Part IV. ADME of Some Specific Groups of Drugs and Delivery Systems

  1. Sheela PaiBir1,
  2. Sadayappan V. Rahavendran2

Published Online: 31 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9780470921920.edm039

Encyclopedia of Drug Metabolism and Interactions

Encyclopedia of Drug Metabolism and Interactions

How to Cite

PaiBir, S. and Rahavendran, S. V. 2012. ADME of Herbal Dietary Supplements. Encyclopedia of Drug Metabolism and Interactions. IV:1–48.

Author Information

  1. 1

    San Marga Consulting, Carlsbad, CA, USA

  2. 2

    Pfizer Inc., Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics & Metabolism Department, Worldwide Research and Development, La Jolla, CA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 31 JAN 2012


In spite of modern medical advances, herbal dietary supplements continue to be widely used for health maintenance, disease prevention, and even disease treatment. The ADME mechanisms for the known herb–drug interactions involve, in most cases, inhibition or induction of hepatic and intestinal drug-metabolizing enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family, and/or drug transporters. This chapter provides a review of the potential for herb–drug interactions based on literature reports for those herbs that are most popularly used in the United States. Relevant clinical and human in vitro studies that have evaluated metabolism-based or absorption-based mechanisms to understand the interactions between these herbs and commonly used drugs are also reviewed.


  • herb–drug interactions;
  • cytochrome P450;
  • P-glycoprotein;
  • US Food and Drug Administration (FDA);
  • commonly used herbs in the United States