17. Irradiation of Ground Beef and Fresh Produce

  1. Howard Q. Zhang2,
  2. Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas3,
  3. V.M. Balasubramaniam4,5,
  4. C. Patrick Dunne6,
  5. Daniel F. Farkas7 and
  6. James T.C. Yuan8
  1. Christopher Sommers and
  2. Xuetong Fan

Published Online: 20 APR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9780470958360.ch17

Nonthermal Processing Technologies for Food

Nonthermal Processing Technologies for Food

How to Cite

Sommers, C. and Fan, X. (2010) Irradiation of Ground Beef and Fresh Produce, in Nonthermal Processing Technologies for Food (eds H. Q. Zhang, G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas, V.M. Balasubramaniam, C. P. Dunne, D. F. Farkas and J. T.C. Yuan), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470958360.ch17

Editor Information

  1. 2

    USDA Western Regional Research Center, 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710, USA

  2. 3

    Center for Nonthermal Processing of Food, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6120, USA

  3. 4

    Department of Food Science and Technology, USA

  4. 5

    Department of Food Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, 333 Parker Food Science and Technology Building, 2015 Fyffe Court, Columbus, OH 43210-1007, USA

  5. 6

    Science, Technology and Applied Research Directorate, U.S Army Natick Soldier R, D & E Center, 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760, USA

  6. 7

    Department of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6602, USA

  7. 8

    Pepsico Beverages & Foods, 100 Stevens Avenue, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA

Author Information

  1. USDA-ARS, Food Safety Intervention Technologies, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 APR 2011
  2. Published Print: 31 DEC 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780813816685

Online ISBN: 9780470958360



  • ground beef and fresh produce irradiation;
  • food irradiation, using ionizing radiation - X-rays, gamma rays, or accelerated electrons, extending shelf life of food products;
  • toxicological safety of irradiated meat;
  • irradiation of raw meat - approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1997, and US Department of Agriculture's Food Safety Inspection Service, in 1999;
  • inactivation kinetics, listed as D10 value - or radiation dose needed to inactivate 90%, or 1 log10, of pathogen;
  • organoleptic quality of irradiated ground beef;
  • key factors, acceptance of irradiated ground beef by consumers - and irradiated ground beef introduced into market place;
  • heat sensitivity following irradiation;
  • irradiation of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables;
  • polymeric packaging materials, used by produce industry - approved by FDA


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • The Problem—Why Irradiate Beef

  • Irradiation and How It Works

  • Irradiation of Beef in the United States

  • Toxicological Safety of Irradiated Meat

  • Inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 by Irradiation

  • Organoleptic Quality of Irradiated Ground Beef

  • Consumer Acceptance and Sales of Irradiated Foods

  • Cooking Temperature, Meat Thermometers, and Risk

  • Heat Sensitivity Following Irradiation

  • Irradiation of Fresh and Fresh-cut Fruits and Vegetables

  • Conclusions

  • Acknowledgment

  • References