25. Chlorine Dioxide (Gas)

  1. Howard Q. Zhang2,
  2. Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas3,
  3. V.M. Balasubramaniam4,5,
  4. C. Patrick Dunne6,
  5. Daniel F. Farkas7 and
  6. James T.C. Yuan8
  1. Lindsey A. Keskinen and
  2. Bassam A. Annous

Published Online: 20 APR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9780470958360.ch25

Nonthermal Processing Technologies for Food

Nonthermal Processing Technologies for Food

How to Cite

Keskinen, L. A. and Annous, B. A. (2010) Chlorine Dioxide (Gas), in Nonthermal Processing Technologies for Food (eds H. Q. Zhang, G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas, V.M. Balasubramaniam, C. P. Dunne, D. F. Farkas and J. T.C. Yuan), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470958360.ch25

Editor Information

  1. 2

    USDA Western Regional Research Center, 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710, USA

  2. 3

    Center for Nonthermal Processing of Food, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6120, USA

  3. 4

    Department of Food Science and Technology, USA

  4. 5

    Department of Food Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, 333 Parker Food Science and Technology Building, 2015 Fyffe Court, Columbus, OH 43210-1007, USA

  5. 6

    Science, Technology and Applied Research Directorate, U.S Army Natick Soldier R, D & E Center, 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760, USA

  6. 7

    Department of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6602, USA

  7. 8

    Pepsico Beverages & Foods, 100 Stevens Avenue, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA

Author Information

  1. USDA-ARS, Food Safety Intervention Technologies Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 E. Mermaid Ln, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 APR 2011
  2. Published Print: 31 DEC 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780813816685

Online ISBN: 9780470958360



  • chlorine dioxide (gas);
  • chlorine dioxide, oxidizing agent - in water treatment, controlling odor and as a sanitizer for treatment of drinking water;
  • ClO2 existing as a dissolved gas in water - not reacting with water molecules;
  • calculating concentration of CDG;
  • relative oxidation power - of oxidizing agents;
  • comparison of relative effectiveness - of oxidants/disinfectants;
  • high-profile use of CDG, after the Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) mailings - in the United States in 2001;
  • ClO2 use in produce industry - as a treatment, minimizing microbial contamination of raw and minimally processed produce;
  • gaseous ClO2 use, inactivating human pathogen - on strawberries, blueberries and raspberries yielding promising results;
  • CDG, a promising sanitizing treatment - for variety of food products


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Calculating Concentration of CDG

  • ClO2 as a Surface Sanitizer

  • ClO2 Use in the Produce Industry

  • References