24. Black Pepper

  1. Mathew Attokaran

Published Online: 7 FEB 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9780470959152.ch24

Natural Food Flavors and Colorants

Natural Food Flavors and Colorants

How to Cite

Attokaran, M. (2011) Black Pepper, in Natural Food Flavors and Colorants, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470959152.ch24

Author Information

  1. Plant Lipids Limited, Cochin, India

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 7 FEB 2011
  2. Published Print: 18 MAR 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780813821108

Online ISBN: 9780470959152



  • black pepper - spices, thoughts of exotic places in minds of western people;
  • black pepper, produced by perennial climber - a woody stem;
  • fruits, grown on a central stalk - into elongated bunch, known as a spike;
  • India, Indonesia, Brazil, and Malaysia - major traditional growers;
  • Sri Lanka, a producer of extraction-grade pepper with high level of piperine - for hotness;
  • piperine content of extraction-grade immature pepper - known as “light berries”;
  • piperine, most significant constituent of dry black pepper - level of 4–6%;
  • starch, major constituent - 40% in black and over 50% in white pepper;
  • changes in chemical composition of pepper - at different stages of maturity;
  • white and green pepper - special “green” flavor, inhibiting enzyme action


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Plant Material

  • Chemistry

  • Essential Oil

  • Method of Testing

  • Uses

  • Identification Numbers

  • References