26. Caramel

  1. Mathew Attokaran

Published Online: 7 FEB 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9780470959152.ch26

Natural Food Flavors and Colorants

Natural Food Flavors and Colorants

How to Cite

Attokaran, M. (2011) Caramel, in Natural Food Flavors and Colorants, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470959152.ch26

Author Information

  1. Plant Lipids Limited, Cochin, India

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 7 FEB 2011
  2. Published Print: 18 MAR 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780813821108

Online ISBN: 9780470959152



  • caramel, obtained by heating sugar - till color changes to a shade, between brown and nearly black;
  • caramel, accounting for major share of color substance - used in processed food;
  • caramelization, developing some flavor - including a bitter note;
  • chemical reactions, complex - pure charring reaction, and the Maillard reaction;
  • alkali, used in manufacture of caramel flavorings;
  • intensity of color - determined using a tinctometer;
  • meat products, sauces, and gravies - high salt content, positively charged products suitable;
  • caramels, used extensively in foods - as baked goods, cereals, and dairy and meat products;
  • caramel, to intensify color of cocoa-based food items - ice cream, cake, pastries and icing


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Production Aspects

  • Classification

  • Use

  • Identification Numbers

  • References