49. Fennel

  1. Mathew Attokaran

Published Online: 7 FEB 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9780470959152.ch49

Natural Food Flavors and Colorants

Natural Food Flavors and Colorants

How to Cite

Attokaran, M. (2011) Fennel, in Natural Food Flavors and Colorants, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470959152.ch49

Author Information

  1. Plant Lipids Limited, Cochin, India

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 7 FEB 2011
  2. Published Print: 18 MAR 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780813821108

Online ISBN: 9780470959152



  • fennel, ancient scholars - fennel seeds endowed with characteristics, promoting active and healthy life;
  • ancient times - fennel, believed to have esoteric uses;
  • Greece, fennel regarded as symbol of success - in Rome, young fennel shoots eaten as food;
  • fennel, a perennial or biennial plant - India, major producer;
  • steam distillation of size-reduced fennel seeds - yielding essential oil;
  • oil, colorless or pale yellow - anethole and fenchone constituents;
  • anethole, 1-methoxy-4-prop-1-enyl benzene - double bond and geometric isomers;
  • Spanish fennel seed essential oil shows methyl chavicol and fenchone;
  • fennel oil, colorless or pale yellow liquid - with characteristic odor and taste of fennel;
  • fennel extractives, pleasant, spicy aroma - in flavoring foods, meat, soup, sauces and bakery products


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Plant Material

  • Essential Oil

  • Oleoresin

  • Uses

  • Identification Numbers

  • References