3. Soil-Forming Factors: Soil as a Component of Ecosystems

  1. S. W. Buol B.S., M.S., Ph.D.1,
  2. R. J. Southard B.S, M.S., Ph.D.2,
  3. R. C. Graham3 and
  4. P. A. McDaniel B.S., M.S., Ph.D.4

Published Online: 5 AUG 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9780470960622.ch3

Soil Genesis and Classification, Sixth Edition

Soil Genesis and Classification, Sixth Edition

How to Cite

Buol, S. W., Southard, R. J., Graham, R. C. and McDaniel, P. A. (2011) Soil-Forming Factors: Soil as a Component of Ecosystems, in Soil Genesis and Classification, Sixth Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470960622.ch3

Author Information

  1. 1

    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA

  2. 2

    University of California, Davis, USA

  3. 3

    University of California, Riverside, USA

  4. 4

    University of Idaho, Moscow, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 AUG 2011
  2. Published Print: 2 SEP 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780813807690

Online ISBN: 9780470960622



  • soil-forming factors - soil, as a component of ecosystems;
  • soils, inorganic and organic components - influenced by composition of geologic material;
  • soil-forming factors, of parent material - climate, relief, organisms and time, affecting soil formation;
  • soil genesis, dealing with phenomena - specific sites on land surfaces;
  • sediments, in reducing coastal plain environment - sediments transported in oxidized environment;
  • glacial deposits, unique among many parent materials;
  • Mollisol–Alfisol–Spodosol (Brown Forest–Podzol)lithosequence - in New York State;
  • climate, two of the most significant components - affecting processes of soil formation, water and temperature (energy);
  • climosequences, soil properties - in relation to moisture and temperature regimes;
  • time as a factor in soil formation - additions and losses of material, altering vertical location of soil


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • The Place of Soils in Ecosystems

  • Parent Material

  • Climate

  • Relief (Topography)

  • Organisms

  • Time as a Factor in Soil Formation

  • Perspective