4. Soil Materials and Weathering

  1. S. W. Buol B.S., M.S., Ph.D.1,
  2. R. J. Southard B.S, M.S., Ph.D.2,
  3. R. C. Graham3 and
  4. P. A. McDaniel B.S., M.S., Ph.D.4

Published Online: 5 AUG 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9780470960622.ch4

Soil Genesis and Classification, Sixth Edition

Soil Genesis and Classification, Sixth Edition

How to Cite

Buol, S. W., Southard, R. J., Graham, R. C. and McDaniel, P. A. (2011) Soil Materials and Weathering, in Soil Genesis and Classification, Sixth Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470960622.ch4

Author Information

  1. 1

    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA

  2. 2

    University of California, Davis, USA

  3. 3

    University of California, Riverside, USA

  4. 4

    University of Idaho, Moscow, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 AUG 2011
  2. Published Print: 2 SEP 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780813807690

Online ISBN: 9780470960622



  • soil materials and weathering;
  • soils, formed from rock weathered in place - or from sediments, from rock;
  • weathering, the chemical and physical alteration - rocks and minerals, at or near surface of earth;
  • physical weathering, and disintegration of rocks - without any chemical or mineralogical changes;
  • weathering sequence, described by Goldich (1938) - most easily weathered minerals at the top and most resistant minerals at the bottom;
  • reduction (gain of electrons) in geochemical environment - water saturated, oxygen supply low and biological oxygen demand high;
  • reduction in soil, requiring that oxygen dissolved - in soil solution be removed by microbial respiration;
  • hydration, association of water molecules - or hydroxyl groups, with minerals;
  • clay minerals, in most soils - phyllosilicates, their structures of repeating layers;
  • equilibria and stability ranges for clay minerals - phase diagrams, quantifying relationships minerals present and ionic activity of solution


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Weathering

  • Products of Weathering

  • Equilibria and Stability Ranges for Clay Minerals