9. Investigation of Animal Venoms and Toxins

  1. P. David Eckersall2 and
  2. Phillip D. Whitfield3
  1. Stephen McClean

Published Online: 5 AUG 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9780470960660.ch9

Methods in Animal Proteomics

Methods in Animal Proteomics

How to Cite

McClean, S. (2011) Investigation of Animal Venoms and Toxins, in Methods in Animal Proteomics (eds P. D. Eckersall and P. D. Whitfield), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470960660.ch9

Editor Information

  1. 2

    University of Glasgow, UK

  2. 3

    University of the Highlands and Islands, UK

Author Information

  1. University of Ulster, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 AUG 2011
  2. Published Print: 19 AUG 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780813817910

Online ISBN: 9780470960660



  • animal venom and toxin investigation - mass spectrometric technologies in structural characterization of peptides;
  • role of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI - TOF) analysis - tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) sequencing combined with database searching;
  • Escoubas and colleagues, and therapeutic potential of peptides - from arachnids;
  • pharmaceutical success stories - Cytolex (Pexiganan), in foot ulcer treatment, in diabetic patients;
  • toxin sequencing methods - first step in analytical process, venom from specimens;
  • novel approach by Tyler's group in Australia - transdermal electrical stimulation for skin secretion extraction;
  • reducing complexity by chromatography - skin secretions, by separation technologies;
  • MS methods for chemical prospecting - standard tool in laboratories;
  • MS/MS Methods MS/MS sequencing - and database searching, identifying previously characterized sequences;
  • method of corroborating sequence calls, needed - de novo sequencing, and Edman degradation or by cDNA cloning studies


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Natural Bioresources

  • Pharmaceutical Success Stories

  • The Methods in Toxin Sequencing

  • Reducing Complexity by Chromatography

  • Bioassay Considerations

  • Classical Edman

  • Overview of MS Methods for Chemical Prospecting

  • Soft Ionization Methods

  • Common Mass Analyzers for Peptide Analysis

  • Information Obtained from Different MS Systems

  • Cloning Studies

  • New Developments and Future Trends

  • Conclusions

  • Other Sources of Information

  • References