Standard Article

Noramlization of porous active surfaces


Methods in electrocatalysis

  1. F. C. Nart,
  2. W. Vielstich

Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470974001.f203023

Handbook of Fuel Cells

Handbook of Fuel Cells

How to Cite

Nart, F. C. and Vielstich, W. 2010. Noramlization of porous active surfaces. Handbook of Fuel Cells. .

Author Information

  1. Universidade de São Paulo, IQSC, São Carlos, Brazil

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2010


Surface area normalization of different electrocatalytic materials for fuel cell applications is of fundamental importance for the comparison of different electrode materials. In this chapter we discuss the methodology for surface area normalization using adsorbed probe molecules. Specifically the methodology using adsorption–desorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide for normalization of active surface areas is discussed. The method entails the determination of the amount of the probe molecule adsorbed on the surface using different methods. Cyclic voltammetry can be used for both hydrogen and CO. In situ infrared spectroscopy and on line mass spectrometry can be used in addition for CO. The surface coverage of hydrogen and CO is discussed for different single crystal electrode surfaces in order to support the use of these methods.


  • true surface;
  • porous catalysts;
  • probe molecules;
  • hydrogen;
  • carbon monoxide;
  • normalization of reaction rates;
  • cyclic voltammetry;
  • in situ IR;
  • differential electrochemical mass spectrometry