Sulfur removal methods
Fuel Cell Technology and Applications
Hydrogen storage and hydrogen generation
Fuel processing from hydrocarbons to hydrogen
Published Online: 15 DEC 2010
Copyright © John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
Handbook of Fuel Cells
How to Cite
Hidalgo-Vivas, A. and Cooper, B. H. 2010. Sulfur removal methods. Handbook of Fuel Cells. .
- Published Online: 15 DEC 2010
Hydrogen production processes, e.g., steam reforming and partial oxidation, begin with a pretreatment section where a sulfur removal method is employed to prepare the feedstock. The characteristics of possible reforming fuels, i.e., liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha and diesel are discussed in a refinery context. Sulfur compounds present in crude oil fractions are divided into different classes. Some exhibit a very low reactivity, which makes them more difficult to desulfurize, and which significantly impacts the achievement of ultra-low sulfur levels. The improved design of efficient hydrodesulfurization processes is based on the understanding of the process chemistry. In the case of a feedstock with low sulfur content, removal of sulfur can be achieved by absorption processes, e.g., absorption on a zinc oxide catalyst bed. In the case of heavier feedstocks or feedstocks with a high sulfur content, a first step consisting of a hydrodesulfurization process becomes necessary. The process conditions, i.e., temperature, pressure, space velocities, catalysts, etc. are determined by the type of feedstock to be treated. The catalysts most generally used for hydrotreatment consist of cobalt and molybdenum oxides or nickel/molybdenum compounds, both supported over alumina. CoMo and NiMo catalysts desulfurize the most refractory compounds through different desulfurization routes, thus the choice of catalyst will be a function of the type of feedstock and process conditions. It is required that the hydrogen sulfide produced by the desulfurization reactions is removed. Options used to remove H2S from the system include the use of zinc oxide absorption, amine wash treatment or both.
- hydrodesulfurization (HDS);
- sulfur-containing compounds;
- zinc oxide bed;
- HDS routes;
- HDS catalysts;
- H2S removal