Standard Article

Stack materials and stack design

Fuel Cell Technology and Applications

Phosphoric acid fuel cells and systems (PAFC)

  1. R. D. Breault

Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470974001.f304066

Handbook of Fuel Cells

Handbook of Fuel Cells

How to Cite

Breault, R. D. 2010. Stack materials and stack design. Handbook of Fuel Cells. .

Author Information

  1. North Kingstown, RI, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2010


The 35 year history of phosphoric acid fuel cell stack development at United Technologies Corporation is traced through three generations of power plants that culminated in the 200 kW ™PC-25 fuel cell power plant. The evolution of stack materials and designs for the electrolyte retaining matrix, electrode substrate, electrolyte reservoir plates, separator plates and coolers are described. Electrolyte management issues relating to water management, electrolyte distribution between cell components, freeze prevention, acid evaporation, and acid transfer by electrochemical pumping are reviewed. Corrosion issues relating to separator plates, anode corrosion, edge seal corrosion and operation at low power levels are discussed. Thoughts on potential improvements to reduce the cost and double the life of the phosphoric acid fuel cell stack are presented.


  • phosphoric acid fuel cells;
  • stack materials;
  • electrolyte retaining matrix;
  • electrode substrates;
  • electrolyte reservoir plates;
  • edge seals;
  • separator plates;
  • coolers;
  • acid evaporation;
  • acid transfer;
  • corrosion