12. Comparative Performance of Leading Pretreatment Technologies for Biological Conversion of Corn Stover, Poplar Wood, and Switchgrass to Sugars

  1. Charles E. Wyman16,17
  1. Charles E. Wyman16,17,
  2. Bruce E. Dale1,2,
  3. Venkatesh Balan1,2,
  4. Richard T. Elander3,
  5. Mark T. Holtzapple4,
  6. Rocío Sierra Ramirez4,†,
  7. Michael R. Ladisch5,6,
  8. Nathan S. Mosier7,
  9. Y. Y. Lee8,
  10. Rajesh Gupta9,
  11. Steven R. Thomas10,‡,
  12. Bonnie R. Hames10,§,
  13. Ryan Warner11 and
  14. Rajeev Kumar12

Published Online: 5 APR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470975831.ch12

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

How to Cite

Wyman, C. E., Dale, B. E., Balan, V., Elander, R. T., Holtzapple, M. T., Ramirez, R. S., Ladisch, M. R., Mosier, N. S., Lee, Y. Y., Gupta, R., Thomas, S. R., Hames, B. R., Warner, R. and Kumar, R. (2013) Comparative Performance of Leading Pretreatment Technologies for Biological Conversion of Corn Stover, Poplar Wood, and Switchgrass to Sugars, in Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals (ed C. E. Wyman), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470975831.ch12

Editor Information

  1. 16

    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, USA

  2. 17

    BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA

  2. 2

    Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA

  3. 3

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, USA

  4. 4

    Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA

  5. 5

    Laboratory of Renewable Resource Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA

  6. 6

    Mascoma Corporation, USA

  7. 7

    Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA

  8. 8

    Department of Chemical Engineering, Auburn University, USA

  9. 9

    Chevron ETC, Houston, USA

  10. 10

    Ceres, Inc., Thousand Oaks, USA

  11. 11

    DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Palo Alto, USA

  12. 12

    Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside and BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA

  13. 16

    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, USA

  14. 17

    BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA

  1. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Andes, Bogota, Colombia

  2. US Department of Energy, Golden, USA

  3. §

    B Hames Consulting, Newbury Park, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 APR 2013
  2. Published Print: 10 MAY 2013

Book Series:

  1. Wiley Series in Renewable Resources

Book Series Editors:

  1. Christian V. Stevens

Series Editor Information

  1. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470972021

Online ISBN: 9780470975831

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Keywords:

  • ammonia pretreatment;
  • cellulosic biomass;
  • dilute acid pretreatment;
  • enzymatic hydrolysis;
  • hot water pretreatment;
  • hydrothermal pretreatment;
  • lime pretreatment;
  • neutral pH pretreatment;
  • pretreatment;
  • sulfur dioxide pretreatment

Summary

The Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI), formed in early 2000, completed its last study in 2010 to determine comparative sugar yields from application of leading pretreatments to shared sources of cellulosic feedstocks followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the resulting solids with a common source of enzymes. This chapter highlights key findings over the 10-year life of the CAFI team on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover, poplar wood, and switchgrass that had been subjected to the following leading pretreatments: ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycle percolation (ARP), dilute sulfuric acid, liquid hot water (LHW), lime, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and sulfur dioxide steam explosion. First, compositions are reported for each of the three baseline CAFI feedstocks. For all three feedstocks, the highest yields of xylose, glucose, and soluble oligomers are then reported for pretreatment coupled with subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis with baseline loadings of cellulase and β-glucosidase. In all cases, material balances were performed. Differences in yields are then reported for application of the same pretreatments to a second source of poplar and two other varieties of switchgrass. Following pretreatment of each feedstock, the compositions of the solids are compared to demonstrate that high yields can be realized even though the different pretreatments left different proportions of xylan and lignin in the pretreated solids. Temperatures, times, and catalyst types and loadings that resulted in the highest xylose and glucose yields in solution are summarized for each feedstock and pretreatment. The results show that a wide range of pretreatment conditions can realize high yields of sugars from cellulosic biomass, and that different types of biomass and even different varieties of the same biomass perform differently and can require modification of pretreatment conditions to increase yields.